The contemporary observers instead tend to focus on cases of gratuitous and horrendous evil. In the mythical landscape of the play, natural locations are the realm of Artemis, the goddess of hunting and virginity, to whom Hippolytus is abnormally devoted, and of Aphrodite, who uses Phaedra to destroy Hippolytus.
The main contours of the assumptions can be adumbrated as follows. See Spiritual Homilies [collection II] Troezen is, on many levels, a substitute for Athens. Concerning the City of God London: For example, for the Neoplatonists and Augustine, the answer to the question unde malum was a cornerstone of a comprehensive theodicy.
With the exception of philosophical skeptics, most premodern thinkers were relatively confident that the problem of evil could be solved, at least theoretically, while they admitted that the eschatological solution was in the hands 13 of God. The nurse is horrified at the thought of the possible consequences of such a sinful passion, and the attendants mourn at what the future seems to hold for all concerned.
It was futile, they argued, to regard unavoidable misfortunes as intrinsically evil. On a less popular level, deterministic explanations are peddled as the latest achievements of natural science and medicine. Nevertheless, even if most objections to the traditional theistic account of evil were put to rest, there is much about this problem that is bound to remain shrouded in mystery, at least on this side of the eschaton.
Fortress, The claim of Platonizing metaphysicians that evil is a non-being generally leaves most modern students of the problem of evil unimpressed. Poseidon, ruler of the sea, once promised Theseus that three of his prayers to the sea god would be answered.
Evans, Augustine on Evil New York: Hippolytus, returning from the chase, pays his respects with song and garlands before the altar of Artemis. As actors we undergo pathos, as spectators we can hope that the pathos of others will have a cathartic impact on us.
Reminded by a servant that an image of Aphrodite stands nearby, he answers impatiently that he acknowledges the power of the Cyprian goddess, but from afar. On a popular level, different forms of fatalism are still with us, if we take into account the enduring popularity of psychics and the questionable comfort that millions still derive from consulting their horoscopes.
Our contemporaries, on the contrary, 36 See H. The nurse swears by the Amazon queen who bore Theseus a son that Phaedra will be a traitor to her own children if she lets herself sicken and die. Euripides was probably drawing upon the following pessimistic comment of Theognis, Elegies,widely debated by later thinkers: The common denominator in process theism, open theism, and kenoticism is the impulse to modify classical theism in order to account for the reality of evil.
The general line of response to these perplexing questions was that the free agency of the rational creatures accounted for the actualization of evil. God becomes reconciled to unjustly suffering humanity by becoming a fellow-sufferer. Phaedra, seeing the handsome youth, fell in love with him, and because her heart was filled with longing she dedicated a temple to the Cyprian goddess.
Instead, the youth, who has been tutored by the holy Pittheus, honors Artemis, goddess of the chase and of spiritual love.
See Hans Schwartz, Evil: To most present-day readers the book of Job raises more questions than it provides answers.Euripides. Hippolytus.
Edited by W. S. Barret. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, Scholarly edition of the play, which includes a discussion of the legend and cult of Hippolytus, evidence for lost plays on the subject, the history of the text in antiquity and the middle ages, and a commentary on the play.
Euripides. Hippolytus. Theseus and Hippolytus are thus guilty of hubris (usually defined as excessive pride, insolence, and self-righteousness), which would have been regarded, even by the most conservative of Euripides’ critics, as a fatal flaw of character.
Nevertheless, Euripides has made several important innovations in this work. Hippolytus study guide contains a biography of Euripides, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
Theodicy in Ancient Literature The theme of divine intervention in the affairs of man is a device used in many forms of literature. It presents itself in the book of Job in the Bible, as Job—a devout follower of God—is put through various trials by Satan in an effort to crush his faith.
In. The extant version of Euripides's Hippolytus is a second version of the play, written in response to the general condemnation of the first verSion, Hippolytus.
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